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ASPECTOS GENERALES DEL CICLO DEL KREBS

DEFINICIÓN GENERAL DEL CICLO DE KREBS

El ciclo de Krebs también llamado ciclo del ácido cítrico, es el conjunto de reacciones químicas organizadas en un ciclo, donde el acetil CoA producido de la descomposición de la glucosa o de los ácidos grasos y las proteínas es utilizado para obtener más moléculas energéticas como ATP y NADH.

Este proceso debe su nombre a quien lo descubrió Hans Krebs en 1937, y también es llamado Ciclo del ácido cítrico.

¡Ojo!

Algunos autores también llaman a este ciclo, “ciclo de los ácidos tricarboxílicos”.

También varía en que algunos consideran a la descomposición de piruvato en acetil CoA como el primer paso de la respiración aerobia y otros autores incluyen esta descomposición dentro del ciclo del Krebs.

PROCESO GENERAL DEL CICLO DE KREBS

1.- El grupo acetilo (acetil CoA) de dos carbonos se combina con oxalacetato (4 carbonos) para producir citrato (un ácido tricarboxílico de 6 carbonos)

2.- Este citrato conforme avanza en el ciclo va perdiendo carbonos (expulsando CO2) y generando moléculas energéticas hasta regresar al oxalacetato (de 4 carbonos) y comenzar el ciclo.

DEFINICIÓN DETALLADA DEL CICLO DE KREBS

El ciclo de Krebs es el ciclo de reacciones químicas mediante el cual el CoA que se formó del piruvato entra a formar un ciclo para ir formando moléculas energéticas (ATP Y NADH) y expulsar CO2. El ciclo de reacciones químicas es el siguiente:

PROCESO DETALLADO DEL CICLO DE KREBS

1.- El grupo acetilo (acetil CoA) de dos carbonos se combina con oxalacetato (4 carbonos) para producir citrato (un ácido tricarboxílico de 6 carbonos)

2.- El citrato es isomerizado en isocitrato por medio de la enzima aconitasa

3.- Este isocitrato se descarboxila gracias a otra enzima y al oxígeno en cetoglutarato.

En este paso se forma:

          1.- La 1ra molécula de NADH

          2.- La 1ra liberación de CO2

4.- El cetoglutarato tiene otra descarboxilación oxidativa para formar succinato y generar:

          1.- La 2da molécula de NADH

          2.- La segunda liberación de CO2

          3.- Una molécula de ATP

5.- El succinato se oxida a fumarato y el FAD forma FADH2.

6.- El fumarato es hidratado a malato.

7.- El malato es oxidado a oxalacetato donde se genera

          1.- La 3ra y ultima molécula de NADH

En conclusión:

Por cada molécula de acetil CoA el ciclo de Krebs produce:

1.- 2 moléculas de Co2

2.- 1 molécula de ATP

3.- 3 moléculas de NADH

4.- 1 molécula de FADH2

ASPECTOS GENERALES DEL CICLO DE KREBS

1.- Este ciclo se lleva a cabo en las mitocondrias de la célula

2.- Este proceso requiere oxigeno

3.- Los reactivos de este proceso son: acetil CoA, oxigeno, oxalacetato y agua.

4.- Los productos del ciclo de Krebs son:

2 moléculas de Co2

1 molécula de ATP

3 moléculas de NADH

1 molécula de FADH2

6.- Es el proceso anterior a la cadena de transporte de electrones

7.- Es el proceso donde convergen los metabolitos de la descomposición de carbohidratos, los lípidos y las proteínas

EXPRESIÓN QUÍMICA DEL CICLO DE KREBS

Por último:

Las moléculas portadoras de energía (NADH y FADH2) pasan a otro proceso llamado “cadena de transporte de electrones” o también llamado “cadena respiratoria” para formar más moléculas ATP.

También están disponibles nuestras guías desarrolladas en formato digital.

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Curso para la UNAM

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