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ESTRUCTURA Y FUNCIONES DEL ADN

DEFINICIÓN DEL ADN

El ADN se llama así por “Ácido Desoxirribonucleico” y es la biomolécula donde se guarda toda la información genética acerca de cómo y cuándo se tienen que formar los organismos.

En 1953 James Watson y Francis Crick publicaron el modelo del ADN (ácido desoxirribonucleico).

UBICACIÓN DEL ADN EN LA CÉLULA

En las células procariotas como ya sabemos, no tienen núcleo, el ADN está en cualquier parte del citosol.

En las células eucariotas, el ADN está contenido en el núcleo celular.

ESTRUCTURA GENERAL DEL ADN

La estructura del ADN se puede estudiar desde 3 aspectos diferentes:

1.- La estructura química

2.- La estructura organizacional

3.- La estructura funcional

LA ESTRUCTURA QUÍMICA DEL ADN

El ADN está formado por 2 cadenas enlazadas paralelamente.

Las cadenas están constituidas cada una de ellas por elementos llamados nucleótidos.

LOS NUCLEÓTIDOS

Los nucleótidos (los eslabones) de cada cadena están formados por un azúcar (desoxirribosa), un grupo fosfato y una base nitrogenada variable.

Para unir los eslabones de cada cadena se une el grupo fosfato con el azúcar del siguiente eslabón.

Y para enlazar las dos cadenas, se une una base nitrogenada del nucleótido de una cadena con la base nitrogenada del nucleótido de la otra cadena.

Como las bases nitrogenadas pueden variar en cada nucleótido, están pueden ser en el ADN:

1.- Adenina (A)

2.- Citosina (C)

3.- Guanina (G)

4.- Timina (T)

Así que para unir una cadena con la otra se forman pares de bases nitrogenadas:

La Adenina se enlaza con la timina y la citosina se enlaza con la guanina.

“El código genético se forman por la secuencia que hay entre las bases nitrogenadas de un segmento de la cadena”.

Por ejemplo:

Un segmento de ADN puede ser la siguiente secuencia: A-A-T-A, que puede representar una proteína, y la secuencia A-T-A-A puede representar a otra proteína.

¡Recuerda!

Recuerda que ya estudiamos los organelos de la célula. Este código se tiene que llevar a los ribosomas que es donde se construirán las proteínas.


ESTRUCTURA ORGANIZACIONAL DEL ADN

El ADN se organiza “físicamente” en cromosomas. Los cromosomas son cadenas de ADN enroscadas y organizadas de diferentes formas y de diferentes tamaños.

Los cromosomas se presentan en pares (llamados cromosomas homólogos), uno de parte de la madre y el otro de parte del padre.

Los seres humanos tenemos 23 pares de cromosomas, o sea 46 cromosomas.

El conjunto total de cromosomas de un ser vivo se le llama “cariotipo”.

¡Ojo!

Las células que contienen pares de cromosomas homólogos se les llama células diploides y las células que tienen solo un cromosoma se les llama haploide.

Los óvulos y los espermatozoides son células haploides, solo tienen un cromosoma. Cuando se fusionan es cuando generaran un ser vivo con células diploides, con un cromosoma de parte de cada progenitor.

¡CONCLUSIÓN!

Nuestro código genético no está codificado en una larga cadena de ADN, sino que esa larga cadena se divide en fragmentos que se enroscan en una forma llamada cromosoma.

Además, nuestro código genético se presenta con una copia. Un cromosoma de la madre y otro del padre. A veces se expresa la información de cierto progenitor, a veces se mezcla la información.

ESTRUCTURA FUNCIONAL DEL ADN

El ADN se organiza funcionalmente en genes.  Los genes son fragmentos del ADN, fragmentos de las cadenas que “determinan” una característica física especifica. Como el color de los ojos, la forma del pelo, etc.

El lugar que ocupa determinado gen en un cromosoma se llama “locus”.

Los cromosomas tienen su propia forma de saber cuándo empieza un gen y cuando termina dentro de la larga secuencia de bases nitrogenadas.

FUNCIONES DEL ADN

Las funciones del ADN son:

1.- Contener la información sobre el organismo a desarrollar. Su forma, sus funciones y su desarrollo.

2.- Trasmitir esta información a las siguientes generaciones.

También están disponibles nuestras guías desarrolladas en formato digital.

error: Contenido Protegido !!
Curso para la UNAM

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