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ESTRUCTURA Y FUNCIONES DEL ARN

DEFINICIÓN DEL ARN

El ARN, llamado así por ácido ribonucleico es una molécula parecida el ADN, pero de una sola cadena, es decir, una sola hilera de nucleótidos y existen diferentes tipos de ARN con diferentes funciones.

ESTRUCTURA DEL ARN

El ARN es casi exactamente como si se cortara el ADN a la mitad. Es decir, solo una cadena de eslabones con la mitad de los lazos que unen con la otra cadena.

La diferencia con el ADN es que, en el ARN sus eslabones (sus nucleótidos, un azúcar y un grupo fosfato) tienen un azúcar “ribosa”, en lugar de una desoxirribosa.

La otra diferencia es que sus bases nitrogenadas, tiene “uracilo” en lugar de timina. Es decir: sus bases nitrogenadas son: adenina, citosina, guanina y uracilo.

TIPOS Y FUNCIONES DEL ARN

Los diferentes tipos de ARN y sus funciones son:

1.- EL ARN mensajero (ARNm): transporta la información genética desde el ADN hasta los ribosomas para formar proteínas.

2.- El ARN de transferencia (ARNt) tiene 2 funciones principales:

1.- Traduce el mensaje genético que lleva el ARNm al lenguaje de los aminoácidos

2.- Transporta los aminoácidos que se van requiriendo para formar la cadena de polipéptidos.

3.- El ARN ribosómico (ARNr) que se encuentra en los ribosomas se encarga de catalizar las uniones (ensamblar) de los aminoácidos recibidos por el ARNt con las indicaciones recibidas del ARNm.

DIFERENCIAS ENTRE EL ADN Y EL ARN

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